The Li-ion battery (LIB) market used to be driven by consumer electronics is now booming to the development of electric vehicles (EV) and energy storage systems (ESS).
In 2016, the LIB manufacturing capacity (as produced from megafactories) was 29 GWh and consumed 9,200 tonnes of cobalt chemical, 23,000 tonnes of lithium carbonate equivalent (LCE) and 34,800 tonnes of flake graphite anode.
By 2020, Benchmark Mineral Intelligence forecast that the LIB market will become the key demand sector for both cobalt and lithium. If the megafactories development annoucements alone are considered, i.e. 269 GWh in total, the raw material demand to support such capacity will by itself become the primary demand driver. Even if such capacity is delayed, it demonstrates a tremendous surge of demand for currently supply constrained metals.